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Why Was the Munich Agreement a Mistake

Later in the session, a pre-arranged deception was undertaken to influence and pressure Chamberlain: one of Hitler`s assistants entered the room to inform Hitler of the other Germans killed in Czechoslovakia, to which Hitler shouted in response: “I will avenge each of them. The Czechs must be annihilated. [32] The meeting ended with Hitler`s refusal to make concessions to the Allies` demands. [32] Later that evening, Hitler worried that he had gone too far to put pressure on Chamberlain and called the suite of Chamberlain`s hotel and said he would agree to annex only the Sudetenland, with no plans for other areas, provided that Czechoslovakia began evacuating ethnic Czechs from the territories of the German majority by September 26 at 8:00 a.m. .m. After pressure from Chamberlain, Hitler agreed to set the ultimatum for October 1 (the same date on which Operation Green was to begin). [37] Hitler then told Chamberlain that this was a concession he was willing to give to the prime minister as a “gift,” out of respect for the fact that Chamberlain had been willing to give up his previous position somewhat. [37] Hitler went on to say that if the Sudetenland were annexed, Germany would no longer have territorial claims over Czechoslovakia and would conclude a collective agreement to guarantee the borders of Germany and Czechoslovakia. [37] [again] An agreement signed at the Munich Conference of September 1938 ceded the German-speaking Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia to Germany.

The agreement was concluded between Germany, Italy, Great Britain and France. Czechoslovakia was not allowed to participate in the conference. In March 1939, six months after the munich accords were signed, Hitler violated the agreement and destroyed the Czech state. The American historian William L. Shirer argued in his book The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich (1960) that although Hitler did not bluff about his intention to invade, Czechoslovakia could have provided considerable resistance. Shirer believed that Britain and France had enough air defenses to avoid serious bombing of London and Paris, and that they could have waged a quick and successful war against Germany. [66] He quotes Churchill as saying that the deal means that “Britain and France were in a much worse position than Hitler`s Germany.” [61] After Hitler personally inspected the Czech fortifications, he privately told Joseph Goebbels that “we had shed a lot of blood” and that he was glad there was no fighting. [67] The Munich Accords (Czech: Mnichovská dohoda; Slovak: Mníchovská dohoda; Munich Agreement) or Munich Betrayal (Czech: Mnichovská zrada; Mníchovská zrada) was an agreement concluded in Munich on September 30, 1938 by Nazi Germany, the United Kingdom, the French Third Republic and the Kingdom of Italy. He granted Germany the “cession of the Sudeten German territory” from Czechoslovakia. [1] Most European countries celebrated the agreement because it prevented the war threatened by Adolf Hitler by allowing Nazi Germany to annex the Sudetenland, a region in western Czechoslovakia inhabited by more than 3 million people, mostly German-speaking.

Hitler proclaimed this was his last territorial claim in Europe, and the choice seemed to be between war and appeasement. On 29 and 30 September 1938, an emergency meeting of the main European powers is held in Munich – without Czechoslovakia or the Soviet Union, allied with France and Czechoslovakia. On Hitler`s terms, an agreement was quickly reached. It was signed by the leaders of Germany, France, Britain and Italy. Militarily, the Sudetenland was of strategic importance to Czechoslovakia, as most of its border defenses were located there to protect themselves from a German attack. The agreement between the four powers was signed in the context of an undeclared german-Czechoslovak war of low intensity, which had begun on September 17, 1938. Meanwhile, after September 23, 1938, Poland moved its army units to its common border with Czechoslovakia. [2] Czechoslovakia yielded to diplomatic pressure from France and Britain and agreed on 30 September to cede territories to Germany on Munich terms. Fearing the possible loss of Zaolzie to Germany, Poland issued Zaolzie with an ultimatum with a majority of ethnic Poles that Germany had accepted in advance and that Czechoslovakia had accepted on 1 October. [3] In the meantime, the UK government has demanded that Beneš request a mediator.

As Beneš did not want to sever his government`s ties with Western Europe, he reluctantly agreed. The Sudeten Germans were ordered by Hitler to avoid any compromise,[25] and the SdP was organized on July 7. September protests sparking police action in Ostrava during which two of his deputies were arrested. [23] The Sudeten Germans used the incident and false accusations of other atrocities as a pretext to break off new negotiations. [23] [26] The Munich Agreement is one of the most criticized diplomatic agreements in history. .